Nei New York City iri 'avhareji': Vatsvagiri vanoda kuvandudza maitiro atinoziva kusarudzika mumadhorobha

Nei New York City iri 'avhareji': Vatsvagiri vanoda kuvandudza maitiro atinoziva kusarudzika mumadhorobha
Nei New York City iri 'avhareji': Vatsvagiri vanoda kuvandudza maitiro atinoziva kusarudzika mumadhorobha
Anonim

Unofunga kuti New York iguta rakasarudzika? Hazvisizvo. Iyo Big Apple ingangoita avhareji yeguta rehukuru hwaro. Nekudaro, San Francisco yakasarudzika. Vagari varo vakapfuma, vanogadzira zvakawanda, vane hutsva, uye vari pasi pemhosva shoma pane dzaungatarisira, zvichienderana nehukuru hwayo.

Zvinoratidza kuti mazhinji emaguta atinowanzo funga nezvawo semakuru angadai asingaratidzike padhuze nepamusoro penzvimbo dzakawanda, kana Luis Bettencourt weSanta Fe Institute aine nzira yake. Iye nevamwe vake vanotenda kuti nhanho dzechinyakare dzemunhu haanyanyi kubatsira pakuona kuti chii chinoita kuti rimwe guta rive nani kana kuipa kupfuura rimwe nekuti havatore zvakaparadzana hukuru hwehuwandu hwevanhu uye hunhu hwenzvimbo kuti zviite saizvozvo.

Mubepa ravo rakatsikiswa muPLoS ONE, vanokurudzira kuenzaniswa kwe-per-capita kune mamwe esainzi anofunga zvakanakira maguta makuru. Chikwata chekutsvagisa chinosanganisira Jose Lobo weArizona State University, Deborah Strumsky weYunivhesiti yeNorth Carolina kuCharlotte, Geoffrey West, uye Bettencourt. West neBettencourt inyanzvi dzefizikisi dzakabatana neSanta Fe Institute (SFI) neLos Alamos National Laboratory.

Maguta makuru ane mukana wezviverengero nekuti kuungana kwevanhu, kudyidzana kwakanyanya munharaunda, uye zvivakwa zvakagadziridzwa zviri nani zvinodaidza mashandiro uye nekumhanyisa danho rinoitika zvinhu, Bettencourt anodaro. Vatsvakurudzi vakaratidza, kutaura zvazviri, kuti nokupeta kwega kwega kwevagari vomuguta, mugari mumwe nomumwe, paavhareji, 15 muzana yakapfuma, 15 muzana inobereka zvakawanda, 15 muzana inoumba zvinhu zvitsva, uye 15 muzana ingangonyanya kubatwa noutsotsi hwechisimba, pasinei hapo nokuti yejiogirafi yeguta kana makore gumi aunodhonza data racho.

Masayendisiti anodana chiitiko ichi "superlinear scaling." Pane kuti mametrics awedzere zvakaenzana nehuwandu hwevanhu - mu "linear, " kana one-for-one fashoni - zviyero zvinokura zvakanyanya kuwedzera zvakanyanya pachiyero chisiri chemitsetse chinopfuura chimwechete pane chimwe.

"Inenge chero chinhu chaunogona kuyera pamusoro peguta chikero zvisina mutsetse," Bettencourt anodaro. "Ichi ndicho chikonzero tine maguta pakutanga. Asi ukasagadzirisa izvi, hausi kutora hunhu hwenzvimbo dzakati."

Sechikamu chekudzidza kwavo, vaongorori vakagadzira zviratidziro zvemuguta guru (scale-adjusted metropolitan indicators) (SAMIs) izvo zvakavabvumira kuenzanisa kuita kwehupfumi hwemagariro emaguta makuru, epakati, uye madiki eU.S.

Nezviyero zvavo, vakaona kuti kusarudzika, zvese zvakanyanyisa uye kusashanda, kunowanzogara. Kureva kuti, kana guta rikapfuma zvakanyanya kana kuti rizere nekuparwa kwemhosva pane zvaringaratidza, rinogara rakadaro kwemakumi emakore.

Vakaona zvakare kuti mamwe maitiro anowanzoita maviri, sehupfumi nekuchengetedzeka; guta rakapfuma asi rine njodzi seFairbanks, Alaska harisi nyore, sezvakaita guta rakashata asi rakachengeteka seProvo, Utah.

Uye vakaona kuti maguta akasarudzika anowanzoita madiki uye ane tsika imwe chete, seCorvallis, Oregon, iyo inodada nehuwandu hwepamusoro hwematendi ehukuru hwayo pamwe nehombe Hewlett-Packard lab.

"Dai tikashandisa kuenzanisa kwemunhu wega wega, tingadai takaona zvisizvo zvakasiyana, nerusaruro kumaguta akawanda makuru ari pedyo nepamusoro," Bettencourt anodaro.

Saka chinzvimbo cheguta chine basa rei? In uye pachayo, kwete zvakawanda, anodaro. Asi kana guta riri pasi- kana kupfuura-kuita zvinotarisirwa nehukuru hwaro, riri kuita chimwe chinhu chakasiyana chakanaka kana chakaipa. Kunzwisisa kuti chii chinopa mazano akakosha ekuti guta ringavandudza sei kana kuwedzera mari pakubudirira kwaro, anodaro.

"Mibairo yedu inoratidza nenzira itsva, yakavakirwa pasainzi izvo zvinonyatso shamisa nezverimwe guta, kusanganisira pesvedzero yenhoroondo yaro, sarudzo dzaro dzemitemo, mhedzisiro yekunaka kwaro, mhedzisiro yaro zvino kuyerwa kuwanda," anodaro."Tarisiro yedu ndeyekuti maonero aya uye maitiro anogona kutibatsira kunzwisisa zvirinani maguta uye kugadzira mamwe magwara akavakirwa pasainzi uye anoshanda."

Musoro Wakakurumbira